Knowledge Base

Most Popular PCB Testing Methods During PCB Manufacturing and PCB Assembly

I. Introduction

PCB assembly workshop

You have a great project ready for PCB and PCBA production. You’ve collected all the necessary components and ensured that your design follows the best practices. PCB test point is a very critical process. Fabrication of PCB and PCBA requires multiple pcb tests to ensure the proper operation of the fabricated board. You wouldn’t want to find out that the broken board doesn’t power on, that’s every company’s worst nightmare! This article will learn the most popular PCB testing methods during PCB manufacturing and PCB assembly. How do those pcb tests affect the board fabrication and the final product quality? There are a lot of PCB tests. Each PCB test is suitable for different scenarios, which depends on your fabrication provider and the provided PCBA project. For reading convenience, we will explain the steps in the order, from pre-assembly review to pcb functional test system.

PCB Failure:
Physical damage
Component failure
Manufacturing errors
Design flaws
Troubleshooting PCBs:
Visual inspection
Electrical testing

PCB Repair Services:
Supply lines
Customer service
Common Pcb Problems:
Starved thermals
Acid traps
Via in Pads

The steps of PCB test are as follows:

1. Incoming Material Inspection (IQC)
2. SPI Solder Paste Detection
3. IPQC First Inspection
4. Temperature Settings KIC
5. X-Ray Components Inspection
6. Optical Inspection Test (AOI)
7. QA Visual Inspection
8. Anti Three Paint (dust-free)
9. Pcb functional test

II. Pre-assembly Process Review For PCB Test

Pre-assembly Process Review For PCB Test

When receiving a new PCBA order, we need to ensure that the PCBA design is complete. All the files are in place before rushing to fabrication and ordering parts. This pcb test point will ensure that the customer uploaded all the necessary files. Such as BOM, Gerber, and Drill positions, and note down any special specifications or requirements made by the customer. This process is crucial. If any issue arises during the pre-assembly review, it’s important to let the customer know and assist. If possible, we will correct those issues. PCBasic will offer its customers cutting-edge DFM tools and PCBA technologies. We ensure that each project goes smoothly without any unnoticed issues. We will spend a lot of energy on PCB test.

III. Incoming Material Inspection (IQC) For PCB Test

PCBA Incoming Material Inspection

Once confirm your PCBA order, we have already prepared the BOM including all the components and the drill file. It’s time to move to the incoming material inspection. According to the BOM (bill of materials), the manufacturer will prepare, purchase and arrange the right components for fabrication. However, purchasing the components is not enough. We need to test and ensure the components have the right value and are at the right size.

PCBasic has accumulated experience of over 15 years. We developed a custom automatic IQC inspection system that has proven to be precise and accurate. The system offers a variety of incoming material inspection PCB tests such as LCR and inspection of IC chip quality. ( LCR is a pcb board testing equipment to measure the inductance, capacitance, and resistance) IQC test is crucial to ensure that the components placed during the fabrication process are correct and valid. Once we start PCB assembly, it will be a very tedious process to correct any mistakes. The mistakes especially in the mass production of thousands of boards are very terrible. Only when the PCB test point is done in every process, the product will be perfect when it is delivered.

IV. SPI Solder Paste Detection For PCB Test

 SPI Solder Paste Detection For PCB Test

We prepared the project files and inspected the materials. It’s time for fabrication. Not before we inspect the solder paste quality! The SPI inspection process will ensure the solder paste. Each solder joint should be clean and has no dust. or other particles are standing in their way. If the SPI PCB test some problems, the PCBA might face issues such as connectivity or low signal quality. The SPI solder paste detection also helps to ensure that all the PCBA joints. The joints have been pasted properly and no joint is missing a solder paste.

V. IPQC First Inspection For PCB Test

IPQC First Inspection For PCB Test

We place the components and verify the solder paste consistency. It’s time to move to the next step, the first IPQC inspection. The IPQC inspection will ensure that the components are on the PCBA board. The function is well and oriented in the right position. At PCBasic, this is an automatic PCB test point. We use a custom in-house developed system. PCBasic has a dedicated software and hardware combination. We can ensure the accurate placement of each component.

VI. Temperature Settings KIC For PCB Test

Temperature Settings KIC For PCB Test

We should place the components correctly. It’s time for some baking, we use the temperature settings KIC PCB test. We can ensure the right temperature in the reflow process. Each component has different specifications and needs. Some components are more sensitive to heat, while others work perfectly fine in a high-temperature environment. The KIC test will ensure the right reflow temperature during the electronic product assembly according to the project needs.

VII. X-Ray Components Inspection For PCB Test

  X-Ray Components Inspection For PCB Test

Finally, the PCBA leaves the reflow oven. We can see the final product in front of our eyes. How can we tell if the components were properly soldered? That’s where the X-RAY components inspection technology comes in handy. Especially for IC and BGA type of components where we can’t see the soldering joints. We place PCBA under the X-Ray inspection machine. The PCB testing engineer will be able to inspect the board thoroughly. In this way, we can ensure all components are well soldered and aligned with the PCB board joints. If a component would not solder properly, a manual correction need require to ensure the component’s functionality by pcb functional test system.

VIII. Optical Inspection Test (AOI) For PCB Test

Optical Inspection Test (AOI) For PCB Test

An optical inspection PCB test or in short AOI is an important test. We can ensure the reliability of each welding point during the PCB assembly service. At PCBasic this is an automatic test. We use an intelligent machine that can scan the entire board within seconds. The AOI machine will walk through each component using smart cameras and sensors. We weld each electronic component in the correct position. Electronic components that do not have leakage welding. This is a crucial PCB test point to ensure that the entire PCBA has been assembled properly. And then, no components are missing.

IX. QA Visual Inspection For PCB Test

QA Visual Inspection For PCB Test

The machines did their job very well but nothing can replace a PCBasic’s quality assurance engineer. We confirm to use of advanced technologies, such as X-Ray, AOI, temperature, and IPQC. We test the board is fabricated properly. It’s time for a QA visual inspection that will ensure nothing is left untreated. The inspector will overview the PCBA board carefully from both sides. It helps us to ensure everything is soldered properly and no damaged components have been detected. Re-inspecting the PCBA board is a second pcb test time. We can ensure top quality at the lowest risk for faulty components or common welding mistakes.

X. Anti Three Paint (dust-free) For PCB Test

Anti Three Paint (dust-free) For PCB Test

Anti three paint is also an important pcb reliability test. It will allow us to check the PCBA paint adhesion. If the adhesion is found to be poor, the PCBA will not function properly. The result is short shelf life as long-term paint protection cannot be guaranteed. PCBasic uses an autonomous machine to perform the adhesion PCB test. The technique will confirm the surface quality of the PCBA board. We can make sure it’s free of dust and other soldering left-over points.

XI. Functional For PCB Test

Functional For PCB Test

Pcb functional test system is the last but not least test performed on the PCBA board before it leaves the factory. The test combines many of the PCB tests as mentioned earlier and more, including testing for possible defects that affect signal reliability, components placement faults, and short circuits. Circuit board testing procedures are an important system. PCB testing and repair can be carried out synchronously. Once we detect the PCB problem, we will repair it immediately.

Once the pcb functional test system test is performed, the PCBA board is ready to leave the factory and meet a happy and satisfied customer. From circuit board testing procedures to PCB board testing equipment, we should do our best in every process. We have all kinds of PCB testing tools. Because we rely on manual PCB detection is limited. With the help of PCB testing tools, we can greatly improve the speed and quality of PCB testing. We have been developing the most reliable and efficient printed circuit board testing methods